History Archives - Vermont Republic https://vermontrepublic.org/category/history/ Second Vermont Republic Wed, 01 Apr 2020 11:45:32 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=6.1.1 https://vermontrepublic.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/cropped-LogoSample_ByTailorBrands-1-32x32.jpg History Archives - Vermont Republic https://vermontrepublic.org/category/history/ 32 32 5 Famous American Artists and Their Paintings https://vermontrepublic.org/famous-american-artists-and-their-paintings/ Mon, 04 May 2020 11:34:34 +0000 https://vermontrepublic.org/?p=2763 Art exists in almost every part of the world. Art is what makes the world go round, and art changes as every year go by. Painters are people that gain a lot of amazing reputation and value in society. They are appreciated for their ability to make people feel good by looking at their aesthetic …

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Art exists in almost every part of the world. Art is what makes the world go round, and art changes as every year go by. Painters are people that gain a lot of amazing reputation and value in society. They are appreciated for their ability to make people feel good by looking at their aesthetic creations, and some of them are paid quite a lot, with certain artworks that cost millions even after so many years.

We’ve all heard about some famous painters, some of us even idolize them. Leonardo Da Vinci, Vincent Van Gogh, Michelangelo or Pablo Picasso, are all the masterminds of different periods, and people love their work.

Today, we are going to focus on American Artists and their famous paintings, so if you are eager to learn some more, feel free to stay with us until the end. Let’s take a look.

1. The Thanksgiving Picture (1943) – Norman Rockwell

img source: pinimg.com

This picture is originally called “Freedom From Want”, but nowadays people refer to it as The Thanksgiving Picture, probably because it is easier to remember that name. As the title says, it has been painted by Norman Rockwell, and it features an entire family gathering up for thanksgiving dinner, while the grandmother is serving fresh turkey in a large plate.

The painting is incredibly well-detailed and it looks stunning. The people in this picture are not chosen randomly, they are the friends and family of the artist. People say that Norman believed that a family is the most precious thing a person can have, and he wanted to express this through art, so he created this wonderful artwork.

2. Number Five (1948) – Jackson Pollock

img source: weebly.com

If you are a lover of abstract art and paintings that have a different meaning for everyone, then you’ll like this one. Number Five is a painting made by Jackson Pollock and he managed to create it by using a very famous yet hard-to-master technique called drip painting.

Jackson is an artist that is considered to be the best abstract artist in the entire world, after the Russian mastermind Wassily Kandinsky. This masterpiece is made on a fiberboard that has the dimensions of eight by four feet, and it was recently sold for about one hundred and fifty million dollars.

We are not sure what the meaning of this piece is, because everyone says something different about it, but we guess that it’s up to the person viewing it to decide what they want to see in the thousands of lines and shapes being displayed on the fiberboard. Sometimes the beauty in art is the fact that it cannot be explained.

3. The Whistler’s Mother (1871) – James McNeill Whistler

img source: wikimedia.org

A painting that was made by a very influential artist, James McNeill Whistler, and this one isn’t as complicated as the previous example, but it still managed to become a very influential artwork in America’s motherhood. A very interesting fact is that back in 1934, the post office of the United States used this picture as a reference to make a stamp that said: “In Memory and Honor of the mother of America”. We can already tell that people fell in love with this artwork, and it is amazing. Did we mention that it features the mother of the artist? Yes, the lady in the picture is Anna McNeill Whistler. For more amazing artwork and interesting information, you can read more here.

4. The portrait of Madame X (1884) – John Singer Sargent

img source: minutemediacdn.com

John Singer Sargent spent a lot of time in Paris, and some of that time was when he was making this painting, but he is still considered as one of the most influential American artists despite his residue. In his mid-twenties, John was trying to make a name in the world of art, and this is what got him the most credit.

The picture features a lady that has been known in the French circles for her outstanding beauty, and at the time she was married to a banker who John knew. At first, it wasn’t easy at all to convince madam Gautreau to pose for this picture, but Sargent somehow managed to do it, so years after the marriage happened he finally completed the picture, and he named it The Portrait of Madame X.

Unfortunately, the critics made a lot of fun about the model and the painter, and there was a scandal that was way too much for the young artist to take at the time, so he had to leave Paris and move to London. Either way, it’s the artwork that got this young artist the most fame during that period, so it is safe to say that he achieved his goal, even though the critics were pretty bad.

5. Christina’s World (1948) – Andrew Wyeth

img source: pinimg.com

In the middle of the twentieth century, Andrew Wyeth had a reputation as one of the best United States artists, and he was known for his realistic painting style. His paintings are somewhat abstract, but they have a very realistic touch that makes them very unique.

In Christina’s World, he features a young lady, Anna Christina Olson, and according to the analysts, she was a neighbor of Andrew, so he decided to take a picture for her. Rumors say that one day Wyeth was looking through his window, and he saw Christina crawling through a field, enjoy the beauty of nature and the grass beneath her, so he immediately got inspired and decided to start making this picture.

Later, the painter found out that the young lady was suffering from a condition called a degenerative muscular disorder, and that’s why she was crawling instead of walking normally. Andrew Wyeth decided to dedicate this masterpiece to her. Upon completing the painting, he didn’t get a lot of fame and positive feedback, but just a few years later, the world recognized his work and it soon became a much-appreciated piece of art that’s worth quite a lot.

When it comes to American realism, this picture is considered to be one of the most important ones and it is stored and protected in a special museum. Andrew probably didn’t expect such success with this one.

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The Most Known Artistic Styles In Painting https://vermontrepublic.org/the-most-known-artistic-styles-in-painting/ Wed, 23 Oct 2019 12:15:50 +0000 https://vermontrepublic.org/?p=1995 Painting, in some form, first appeared in the Paleolithic, 30,000 years BC. It is an art that seeks to express ideas, emotions and personal perceptions with certain aesthetic qualities. Throughout its history, painting art has taken various forms. That was depending on the use of different materials and techniques. Over the centuries, different methods and …

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Painting, in some form, first appeared in the Paleolithic, 30,000 years BC. It is an art that seeks to express ideas, emotions and personal perceptions with certain aesthetic qualities. Throughout its history, painting art has taken various forms. That was depending on the use of different materials and techniques. Over the centuries, different methods and artistic styles have changed. So were the theories regarding the purpose of art. Nevertheless, these methods and styles, sometimes, reappeared in later epochs. But, in a slightly modified form. Painting has undergone many forms throughout its long and rich history. But it is still one of the most significant forms of art today.

Painting forms

The oldest known paintings were made on the walls of caves, some  30,000 years ago. These paintings were made with pigments derived from the dust of various minerals. They were mixed with animal fat, plant extracts, and even blood. More than 5,000 years ago, Egyptian art was dominant. The artists of the time painted the walls of the Pharaoh’s tombs. About 1,500. BC, Minoan art was developed. It was characterized by lively colors. It is also worth noting the ancient Greek and Roman art. They were primarily dominated by naturalistic depictions of mythological or ritual scenes, as well as depictions of landscape, and everyday life.

Below, we’ll present you some of the most well-known painting styles, in periods that brought some of the world’s foremost artists.

The Renaissance – The Dominant Period Of Medieval European Art

Image source: brainscape.com

The Renaissance in painting spans a significant period of about two centuries. The technique that prevails in this period is the painting in tempera. Works are mostly religious content. In the mid-15th century, oil painting techniques emerged. This is the period when perspective was introduced into painting. Painters have learned to represent space and depth. Some of the most famous artists of the time also represented shadows in their works. Certainly the most prominent of them was Leonardo Da Vinci. This artist treated the drawing as a means to enhance the image. He also paid attention to movement, anatomy, facial features that express emotions.

Baroque As A Dynamic Response To The Renaissance

Image source: thegreatcoursesplus.com

Baroque paintings are mostly large-scale. Baroque was formed from a theme that makes one think about religion. During this time, the church tried by all means to maintain its position in the arts.

Baroque in painting developed relations between shadows and light sought to develop dramatic and pathetic. It was characterized by strong gesture and movement dynamics as opposed to a static and calm renaissance. Complex compositions appear. As you can read on meisterdrucke.com, the diagonal composition was also often used. The most important Baroque painters were Caravaggio, Diego Velasquez, Rubens, Rembrandt, and many others.

Realism In Painting

Image source: identifythisart.com

Realists were stimulated by the importance of science. To avoid being pretentious, they sought to portray the world as what the common man would see it. Although they were trying to avoid a mere description of reality, they wanted to give a sense of immediacy that they felt was lacking. Within realism, naturalism also developed. This art aspired to present copies of nature in the smallest detail. The most famous representative of realism painters was Gustave Courbet.

Impressionism

Image source: widewalls.ch

Impressionism in the painting represents a transitional period between tradition and the revolution in painting. Their traditionalism is reflected in the desire to represent nature in its pure form. On the contrary, the revolutionary attitude is seen through a new way of representing light and atmosphere.

The most important painters were Manet, Pissarro, Degas, Monet, Renoir, etc.

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The History of Writing since Ancient Times to the Modern Age https://vermontrepublic.org/the-history-of-writing-since-ancient-times-to-the-modern-age/ Tue, 14 May 2019 08:43:23 +0000 https://vermontrepublic.org/?p=889 Let’s come back to the ancient times before the evolution of human beings known as Homo habilis who were primarily hunters and gathers. Their only source of food was hunting and gathering. Therefore, there were no pizza delivery guys or McDonald’s company with fast food. What to say? There was no elaborate system of written …

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Let’s come back to the ancient times before the evolution of human beings known as Homo habilis who were primarily hunters and gathers. Their only source of food was hunting and gathering. Therefore, there were no pizza delivery guys or McDonald’s company with fast food. What to say? There was no elaborate system of written spoken communication. Everything was all gestures or only we think so? Scientists state that written communication dates as early as 25,000-30,000 BP. So, how was it done given the fact that there was no elaborate language? How did that develop to the modern writing system we have today?

Ancient Forms of Writing

Paintings

The first form of written communication was in the form of paintings. To an untrained eye, these paintings look rather random but scientists have actually gone ahead to prove that the paintings tell a story. This was back in the 30,000 BP and as expected there was no ink and paper to paint on. The drawings were painted in caves using stones. That just shows how old drawing as art is.

Pictography

With evolution, the man shifted from hunting and gathering to farming. The history dating back to the agrarian revolution in Mesopotamia, these were the first farmers and acted as a landmark to the development for the first written symbols. In Mesopotamia, people practiced trade and this gave rise for the need for written communication to keep track of the financial transactions. If it was not for trade in Mesopotamia, most probably we would still be communicating through pictures. As a result, there was no assignment or homework for students. However, with trade expanding each and every day there raised the need for records to keep track of the quantity and price tag.

Pictography
source: commons.wikimedia.org

The first every symbol to represent objects were painted in tokens and wet clay soil. The symbols either represented an idea, concept or object. The origin of beer dates back this far, and as expected this was the fastest moving item of trade. Explaining why the first pictographs were about beer. Through written records, the leadership in Egypt was able to keep track of their harvests and beer.

Phonograms

The Sumerians are the masters behind the development of alphabets. Unlike the Egyptians who used symbols to represent objects, the Sumerians used symbols to represent sounds. The sounds of their own language, the Sumer! The writings were invented as a way of long-distance communication between the Sumerians so as to facilitate trade.  To them, the writings not only represented financial transactions but also communicated on the items of trade and quantity. The Sumerians invented the first consonant sound.

Epigraphs

Epigraphs
source: pinterest

The Sumerians influenced proto-Canaanite and the proto-Sinaitic to come up with the alphabet. What are epigraphs? These are writing that are preserved on hard and durable materials. The two scripts responsible for the invention of the first written language were the: Archaic Script and the Aramaic Script. The archaic script led to the development of the Greek alphabet, which was the first in the world closely followed by Arabic which resulted from the Aramaic script. The Greek alphabet gave paved way for the development of Latin and Cyrillic language. Greek was the first written language and most languages including English relied heavily on the Greek alphabet.

Modern Age Writing

There is no doubt that writing was one of the best things to ever happen to humankind. What started off as simply keeping track of financial proceeding is what we rely on to learn. The best and most effective way of learning something new is writing it down.

Human beings have embraced writing to a whole new level. This is the first thing children are taught in their first few years in school. It all starts with the alphabet just as mathematics is all about the multiplication table.

Writing has grown to such a big field such that we even have people who pursue it as a career. Working either as bloggers, authors or freelance ghostwriting! In school, our academic system expects us to express ourselves through writing; this explains the insanely many assignments and homework given to students each and every day.

Unlike in the ancient times where writings were preserved in the form of scripts, in today’s world accessing written materials is one of the easiest things you can do. You can either decide to do it online, buy a newspaper or visit a public library. In college, we have people who pursue education with full-time jobs or other commitments outside course work. As much as such people would want to write all the assignments themselves; sometimes, with the heavy workload, this can prove practically impossible. This was the reason behind the emergence of custom writing services. To provide professional help to students who need their assignment and homework done with precision. There are more than enough USA assignment help writers to make your student life easy, for example https://domyassignments.com

Writing has come a long way and it seems like with each invention it gets better. We are sure the way you are writing now can be improved shortly if you ask some of the experienced specialists, such as customessaymeister.com

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A Unique Way to Honor Princess Diana’s Memory https://vermontrepublic.org/a-unique-way-to-honor-princess-dianas-memory/ Fri, 29 Mar 2019 14:42:21 +0000 https://vermontrepublic.org/?p=642 The memory of the late Diana, Princess of Wales is alive and well. As one of history’s most beloved women and arguably one of the most popular members of the royal family, Princess Diana remains a household name all over the world. Her beauty and popularity made her recognizable, but it was her charity that …

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The memory of the late Diana, Princess of Wales is alive and well. As one of history’s most beloved women and arguably one of the most popular members of the royal family, Princess Diana remains a household name all over the world. Her beauty and popularity made her recognizable, but it was her charity that earned her a place among the legends. To date, she continues to have adoring fans around the world who value her contribution to the world and how her fame forever changed how the world sees the royal family.

And, now there is a new way to honor and remember this magnificent woman; using personalized number plates, specifically the plate D1 ANA. As you can probably already guess, the announcement that this one of a kind personalized number plate will go on sale generated a lot of interest in the media. It is expected that anyone wanting to own it will have to part with anywhere from £80,000 to £100,000. “Given the popularity of the Princess, we wouldn’t be surprised if the value of the plate far surpasses this estimate,” said a spokesman at Show Plates Direct

A Unique Way to Honor Princess Diana’s Memory
source: pinterest

This number plate was originally purchased for £26,000 by a man whose wife was named Diana in 1986 and it was part of the “D” registrations released that year. For more than 30 years the special plate has remained elusive which is why it was expected to fetch such a high price at the auction. The valuation comes from the near-perfection of her name together with all the interest the Princess of Wales continues to generate even today.

Since there is not much distinction between “1” and “I” in most character spacing including the legal spacing requirements by the DVLA, this particular plate is extraordinary in that is spells her name more than other personalized plates have in history. Other similar and equally as top-grade number plates include S1 MON, CHR IS and LOU IS.

personalized number plates
source: rd.com

For all these reasons, a bidding frenzy was expected amongst the Princess’s biggest fans as well as some of the more seasoned number plate enthusiast who may want to collect this rare gem. The frenzy generated by this single personalized plate demonstrates the popularity of this growing industry. The industry nets the Treasury an estimated £100 million a year and there is also the millions of private collectors who buy these plates for investment purposes.

Buying private number plates has continued to gain popularity, not just because you can re-sell them at a handsome profit, but also because they allow you to easily personalize your vehicle. This is the primary reason celebrities’ part with insane amounts of money just to have one.

This auction was organized by Coys as a special way to celebrate their 90th anniversary. Along with the D1 ANA, a total of 60 sports and classic cars and famous rock guitars were also auctioned. Among the cars offered was a 1963 Porsche 356b Cabriolet, a 2004 Ferrari Enzo and a 1955 Mercedes Benz 300SL worth a staggering £350,000.

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Top 21 Weirdest Royals in History https://vermontrepublic.org/what-do-you-know-about-the-weirdest-royals-in-history/ Wed, 06 Feb 2019 11:06:56 +0000 https://vermontrepublic.org/?p=142 When one thinks of royalty, famous and great kings and beautiful princesses come to mind first. Their lavish castles and fortresses, huge wealth and big armies come next, and perhaps even their territories. However, history is full of weird royals. What do we mean by weird royals? Everything is included in the following list, from …

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When one thinks of royalty, famous and great kings and beautiful princesses come to mind first. Their lavish castles and fortresses, huge wealth and big armies come next, and perhaps even their territories. However, history is full of weird royals. What do we mean by weird royals? Everything is included in the following list, from psychopaths to murderers and savages. Some were just not right in the head, while others were always controversial and suspicious. Read on to learn about 21 weird royals.

Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg – Queen of Sweden

As the rest of the women of the era, she was to give her husband a male heir. She failed to do so, and decided the right move was to kill her daughter, Christina, by pushing her down the stairs. When King Gustavus died, she lost it and did not want to bury him for more than a year, and slept under a casket with his heart in it.

Charles VI of France – King of France

During a chaotic time and turmoil, he suffered from fever and convulsions. He went insane after 1392 and was plagued by paranoia and rages. He was homicidal and dangerous. Most famously, he suffered from glass delusion and believed his body was of glass. When the delusion kicked in, he was still for hours, while he was running about when it went away.

Peter III of Russia – Tsar of Russia

What Do You Know about the Weirdest Royals in History?
source: pinterest

The husband of Catherine the Great, he was tutored by a sadistic person. He was left in a state of arrested development. He hated Russians and they hated them. He was a bad match for Catherine, as he was a man-child. It is possible they never consummated their marriage, as he wanted to play with toy soldiers in bed and dress up in military gear. He once called his wife a whore while drunk, and held a court-martial for a rat that bit of the head of one of his toys.

Nero – Emperor of Rome

Nero’s mom married her uncle Claudius and convinced him to make Nero Emperor instead of his own son. She then poisoned him. Nero learned well from her and removed anyone who bothered him when he came to power, including her and his wife. He had multiple wives and lovers and spent a fortune on s*xual pursuits. He murdered anyone who criticized him. When a great fire broke out in Rome in 64 AD, it destroyed 75% of the city. It is thought he started it to clear space for a new castle. The worst part is that he did nothing to stop the flames. He also married a random man who looked to him like his second wife he had killed. He made the man dress like a woman, while he had another relationship where he dressed as a woman.

Elagabus – Emperor of Rome

He was a proper hedonist and enjoyed watching others suffer. His endeavors are many:

-He chained naked women to chariots like horses and whipped them while they pulled it.

-He released poisonous snakes into the audience of the gladiator games and watched the crowd panics and die.

-He tied dinner guests to a water wheel and watched them slowly drown.

-He tossed gold and silver from the balcony and enjoyed while poor people fight and die over it.

-He let lions and leopards loose during a feast.

-He filled positions in the government based on the sizes of peni*es.

-He stabbed an advisor to death after he suggested he should live a modest life to prevent revolt over taxation.

Sado – Crown Prince of China

Sado was a cruel and violent son, who was obsessed with pleasing his father King Yongjo. Sado suffered from delusions and nightmares since he was 10, and it constantly got worse. He went insane over trying to please his father, while he was equally crazy about torturing his son. Sado indulged in his vices, as he threw al*ohol-fueled orgies although alc*hol was illegal. He sent dead bodies out of the palace each day, murdered a concubine and slept with a nun. He also tried to seduce his younger sister. When the king learned about some of this, he locked him in a giant chest where he starved to death after eight days.

Ivan IV the Terrible – Tsar of Russia

Ivan was the first and the most famous Russian tsar. He was known for his rages from an early age. Since gaining power in 1847, he expanded his kingdom. He started to lay, terror, depressed after his wife passed. This state lasted for 24 years, a period when he murdered nobles who were against him, beat his daughter-in-law after which she had a miscarriage, and murdered his son during a rage by hitting him on the head. Allegedly, he blinded the architect of St. Basil’s Cathedral, so that he cannot make another building as great as that one.

Caligula – Emperor of Rome

Caligula believed he was a real god and forced his subject to worship him like one. After his adoptive father Tiberius died, possibly by Caligula’s hand, he eliminated his son and became emperor. He became vile after several months and killed those who opposed him. He replaced the heads of the statues with is busts. A group of guards killed him.

Joanna of Castile – Queen of Castile and Aragon in Spain

The daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella famous for sending Columbus to find India, she married Philip I of Burgundy, son of the Holy Roman Emperor. She gave him six children who were emperors and queens and was a devoted wife. However, she earned a nickname “Juana La Loca” because she kept her husband’s dead body with her at all times.

Justin II – Emperor of Byzantium

The ruler of Byzantium from 565 to 578 AD, he was prone to acts of madness. He would behave so strange that people around him thought a devil possessed him. Sometimes he tried to bite others and demanded organ music to calm him down. When they tried to calm him, he cried, laughed, made animal noises and hit them.

Christian VII of Denmark – King of Denmark

What Do You Know about the Weirdest Royals in History?
source: pinterest

He became king at the age of 16 in 1766 and never acted a day older than this in his life. He had a habit of unhealthy doses of mast*rbation and played pranks on his grandmother. He ran in the streets, destroyed shops, and patronized brothels. He would also leapfrog dignitaries when they bowed to him. His doctor sought to rise to power but was caught alongside the queen by his stepmother.

Zhengde – Ming Dynasty Emperor

This royal was Passionate about the pursuit of pleasure and the world of make-believe, so he installed eunuchs in all positions of power. He also let them run the government. He had such a large harem that some women starved because there was not enough food for all. In addition, he set up entire settlements to play make-believe and act as a shopkeeper or a general.

Mustafa I – Sultan of the Ottoman Empire

Mustafa had a strange childhood. A tradition was to execute the younger brother when stepping on the throne, but his older brother spared him and kept him in a windowless prison. He remained there for 14 years and had major mental health issues. He went to the throne straight from the cage when his brother passed. He would constantly go back to his prison and abducted the throne.

Ibrahim I – Sultan of the Ottoman Empire

He succeeded his brother in 1640 and was an inept ruler from the start. He had a harem of 280 women, while his mother ruled instead, at least until he banished her. His most famous moment came when he went mad and drowned his entire harem. He was imprisoned by the people after imposing high taxes and was strangled to death.

Vlad III the Impaler – Prince of Wallachia

Is there anything more bizarre than being the real-life namesake of the Dracula? Born in 1431 in today’s Transylvania, his father was a member of the Order of the Dragon, devoted to defeating the Ottomans. Therefore, he bared the name “Dracul”, or “Dragon”. Vlad was, therefore “The Son of Dracul”, or Dracula. He spent his childhood captured by the Turks. When he returned home, he reclaimed the throne and invited hundreds of nobles to dinner, only to have them stabbed and impaled on stakes. He would also nail turbans to the Turks’ heads if they did not remove them.

Erik XIV of Sweden – King of Sweden

Erik was a charming and handsome king before paranoia made him mad. He took the throne in 1560 and was in a constant battle against his brother over the throne. His mind faded over time, and he was schizophrenic, with frequent mood swings. He sentenced people to death for annoying him and executed anyone who giggled around him. He went too far when he killed a nobleman by stabbing him, after which his guards killed various other aristocrats in prison.

Quin Shi Huang – Sultan of the Ottoman Empire

Born as Zhao Zheng in 259 BC, he is one of the most famous Chinese rulers. He united the Chinese states into a country after became king of a small state at 13 and having his mother’s lover killed. Quin declared war on the intellectuals and burned books. He buried 460 intellectuals alive for speaking against his quest for eternal life. He is best known for being buried with an army of terra cotta warriors.

Nebuchadnezzar / Nabonidus – King of Babylon

According to the Bible, more specifically the Book of Daniel, this Babylonian king went mad for seven years and retreaded from the society completely in order to live like an animal. He ate grass. It is not completely familiar which of the two rulers did this, or was it one of their sons of the same name.

George III of the United Kingdom – King of Great Britain and Ireland

What Do You Know about the Weirdest Royals in History?
source: pinterest

George III was the monarch during the American Revolution. His madness and bad politics influenced the colonies in the best way. During one of his many rants of insanity and madness, his servants had to restrain him using a straitjacket. His madness is associated with either a metabolic disease called porphyria, or arsenic poisoning from various medicines or cosmetics. Amazingly, he is the longest ruling king in the history of Britain.

Ludwig II of Bavaria – King of Bavaria

This German monarch is best known for spending his money and time while in power on building countless elaborate and fantastical castles throughout his state. The most famous is Neuschwanstein, a castle that inspired Walt Disney’s design for both Cinderella and Sleeping Beauty’s signature castles. Except this, he is known for dressing up and play-acting as a child, isolating himself from everyone. He shied away from his royal duties and invented a fantasy world for himself. He thought himself to be Parzival, who was a medieval figure associated with the Holy Grail. He was declared insane by the government after so much spending. He was found dead the next day, along with the person who declared him medically insane.

Catherine the Great – Empress of Russia

Unlike the rest of the list, she was not a bad ruler by any means. She reformed her country and male-female monarchs look strong and capable in a time of man. It was her private life that was controversial. She was born in Germany as Sophie von Anhalt-Zerbst and married number 3. On our list, Peter III. Since he was like that, she looked elsewhere for her needs. She later conspired against him with the nobles and had him killed, aided by the brother of her lover, Gregory Orlov. Since then, she went through countless lovers and gifted them with money and titles. One was even the King of Poland, whom she attacked. There is a myth that she died during intercourse with a horse.

These were the weirdest royals in history. Whom do you find the most shocking, and were you aware of their craziness?

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Top 9 Bizarre Objects That Henry VIII Owned? https://vermontrepublic.org/what-was-in-the-collection-of-bizarre-objects-that-henry-viii-owned/ Wed, 06 Feb 2019 09:22:19 +0000 https://vermontrepublic.org/?p=137 When you are a monarch of a powerful country, you have an immense wealth at your disposal. In addition, your representatives and troops venture into the unknown parts of the world as part of diplomatic missions and war campaigns. These things present a great way to form a personal collection of bizarre objects if you …

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When you are a monarch of a powerful country, you have an immense wealth at your disposal. In addition, your representatives and troops venture into the unknown parts of the world as part of diplomatic missions and war campaigns. These things present a great way to form a personal collection of bizarre objects if you are into that kind of thing. Henry VIII was, and here we will explore his collection of bizarre objects. His collection counts thousands of items and took 18 months to complete and list after his passing in 1547.

A Set of Purple Velvet Bagpipes

Henry was a talented musician and composer who played the organ, lute, flute and virginal. A complete list of instruments includes 20 recorders, 19 viols, 2 clavichords, and 4 sets of bagpipes, one being the purple velvet with ivory pipes.

A Bowling Alley

Henry ordered a bowling alley to be built at Hampton Court Palace, outside of London. It was around 200 feet long, more than three times longer than modern 10-pin alleys. Tudor England saw bowling as a hugely popular activity.

What Was in the Collection of Bizarre Objects That Henry VIII Owned?
source: pinterest

A “Scavenger’s Daughter”

This weird name item is a gruesome and brutal torture instrument invented during his reign. The designer was Leonard Skevington, who was the Lieutenant of the Tower of London. It consisted of an A-shaped iron brace. The victim would sit in a crouched position, head almost touching the knees, with wrists, ankles and neck shackled. Another iron bar is then tightened, crushing the victim with huge force. The eyes, nose and ears would then bleed.

A Marmoset

Henry adored animals and kept ferrets, falcons, hawks, and other birds including canaries and nightingales. He also owned a number of dogs, but his most unusual pet was a marmoset, a Christmas present in the 1530s. His first wife Katherine of Aragon also had one. This was kept of record, so was the polar bear given by the King of Norway Haakon IV to Henry III in 1252.

A Codpiece Large Enough to Hide a Weapon

Henry is the one who made Tudor fashion famous, with its enormous and exaggerated codpieces. The king had the biggest, enough to keep jewels and small weapons. He also had them in his armor.

A Mace Pistol

This great and monstrous device had the nickname “the holy water sprinkler”, or “the king’s walking staff”. It is made of a pronged mace that holds three gun barrels in the spiked head. He would carry it around at night to check if the guards are doing their work. One even arrested him and then got a raise.

A Pair of Football Boots

Yes, you read that right. He had them made in 1526 for 4 shillings, or 130$ today. He banned the sport 14 years later in 1540.

A Suit of Armor with a 51-inch Waist

His armor shows that in 1514, a 23-year-old king was 6 foot 1, a 32-inch waist and 39-inch chest, while 25 years later, at 49 years of age, he required a 51-inch waist and a 54.5-inch chest.

A Horned Helmet

The demon-faced helmet was a gift from the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximilian I, in 1514. There was a whole armor as well, now, unfortunately, lost to history. Will Somers, his court jester, used it for acts and parades after Henry’s death.

What Was in the Collection of Bizarre Objects That Henry VIII Owned?
source: vintag.es

What do you think about King Henry VIII’s collection of bizarre objects? What would you like to own if you could have anything you like? Which item is your favorite from the ones mentioned?

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These Seven Moments in History Sound Made up, but Are True https://vermontrepublic.org/these-seven-moments-in-history-sound-made-up-but-are-true/ Fri, 01 Feb 2019 09:12:50 +0000 https://vermontrepublic.org/?p=99 Moments in history vary in many factors. Some are famous and iconic, some just happened and are not worth mentioning. A third group sounds like it was made up. Here, we will go over a few of these, the moments of history that sound too strange to be true. Ancient Egyptian strike action When you …

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Moments in history vary in many factors. Some are famous and iconic, some just happened and are not worth mentioning. A third group sounds like it was made up. Here, we will go over a few of these, the moments of history that sound too strange to be true.

Ancient Egyptian strike action

When you think of strike, industrialisms era and unions come to mind, and not the ancient Egyptian empire. The first strike recorded in history started on November 14, 1152 BC, during the reign of Rameses III. It is a misconception that slaves build everything in Egypt. They were not the main workforce, as craftsmen, builders and haulers were paid men and proud of their work. During the construction of a royal necropolis at Deir el-Medina, workers felt underpaid and organized a mass walkout that halted the construction. Their demands were met surprisingly, and they even got more money. The necropolis still stands.

Fantasy fight becomes a reality

In 1967, a radio producer by the name of Murray Woroner came up with a great idea of settling every pub argument about boxing. He suggested putting all the stats and details of a fighter in their prime into a computer, and it will determine the winner. He used the NCR 315 Data Processing System and a computer with 12 bits of memory. It was very popular, and each fight was turned into a radio play.

These Seven Moments in History Sound Made up, but Are True
source: buzzkeys.com

Muhammad Ali noticed one in the 1960s. He did not box because of his refusal to fight in the Vietnam War, and therefore close to bankruptcy. Woroner claimed Ali would lose against Jim Jeffries, so Ali threatened to sue. Woroner instead offered him $10,000 to take part in a filmed version of the radio fantasy fight, against Rocky Marciano who retired 14 years prior. Ali needed the money and agreed, so did Marciano. They sparred for 70 to 75 rounds, which was edited according to the computer’s prediction. Marciano died in a plane crash three weeks after filming, unfortunately. The footage was as a one-off event in 1,500 cinema theatres, and a huge hit, earning $5 million. The ‘computer’ said that Marciano would knock out Ali in the 13th round, which was of course highly unlikely.

The ‘dancing plague’

Known as the ‘St Vitus’s Dance’, choreomania was a bizarre medieval phenomenon originating in central Europe. This was a spontaneous and continuous dancing by crowds until they collapsed or died. Choreomania was reported by eyewitnesses and a genuine concern for the authorities and citizens. During June of 1374, one of the biggest outbreaks started in Aachen, Germany. It spread to Cologne, Flanders, Utrecht, and even Italy. In addition, in Strasbourg, July of 1518 a woman called Frau Troffea started dancing in the street. After four days, 33 others joined in. There were 400 after a month, and many suffered heart attacks and died. Nobody knew what was going on due to the lack of medical advancement. It could have been some kind of a skin infection or a muscular inflammation causing spasms. Of course, many believed it was a curse.

The American invasion of Korea

In the 19th century, some Asian nations sealed themselves from the rest of the world. These included Japan, China, and Korea. America decided to investigate and unlock the states and trade with them again. It worked in Japan, a diplomatic mission led by Commodore Perry in the 1850s. During the American Civil War, it was on hold. Then in 1871, a small fleet of American ships returned to the Pacific, specifically Korea. Their diplomatic vessel, a merchant ship and not a warship, came under fire by the Korean shore batteries. Americans landed after 10 days, bringing 650 marines and sailors. It was a cultural misunderstanding, and the Koreans did not want to appear weak or worried over the error, while the Americans saw only arrogance and wanted to teach them a lesson.

The American invasion of Korea
source: khanacademy.org

The Marines captured Ganghwa Island’s forts and the batteries mission. The skirmishes were one-sided as Korea used old technology and tactics against a well-trained and equipped American navy. The Americans captured all the forts and lost just three men, while the Koreans had 243 casualties. The Koreans never apologized and refused to talk to members of the US government. They did not open diplomatic negotiations for 11 years and maintained their isolationist policy.

An underwhelming WW2 battle

Castle Itter is a small fort in Austria, which was used by the SS during World War II as a prison for VIPs, and the place of one of the most interesting battles. On 6 May 1945, peace was close as the Third Reich was nearly destroyed. The German commander committed suicide while some SS soldiers retreated. One Yugoslav prisoner and freedom fighter, Zvonimir Čučković, escaped. He went looking for Allied troops to rescue the remaining prisoners. He met an American armored battalion, while at the same time, a Major Josef Gangl, an Austrian in the German Army, collaborated with Austrian resistance in the closing days of the war. He also wanted to free the prisoners but decided to surrender alongside his men to the Americans. With Čučković, a strangle deal took place. The major and his Wehrmacht troops fought alongside the Americans against the remaining SS guards.

It was a small battle, as SS faced their countrymen and Americans who had a Sherman tank. Austrian partisans and French prisoners joined the fight. This was a marvelous symbol of the unifying effect that the Allies had, compared to the Nazis. A maximum of 100 men participated. The Sherman tank was destroyed, and a sniper took out Major Josef Gangl. This was the only time the Americans fought alongside Germans in the war.

The immovable interest rate

Britain hardly invented modern banking, as many concepts were copied from Holland. However, their growing empire became the master of what modern banking. The Bank of England was established in 1694 and had possession of the government’s balances, as well as permission to be the only corporation to issue bank notes. The bank also set the first national interest rate at 6%.

Interest rates did not start to move regularly until the late 19th century. In 1719, the Bank of England moved it from 4% to 5% and did not move it again until 1822, when it went back 4%. That interest rate lasted for 103 years and was the longest fixed rate in the history of Britain.

In that time frame, there were a number of smaller conflicts, but three wars were big deals. The Seven Years’ War between 1754 –1763 occurred, as did the main conflict when Britain took taking Canada from the French. This never affected the interest rates.

Around 15 years later, the American War of Independence took place. Between 1775 and 1783, Kingdom of Great Britain fought the 13 of its former North American colonies that declared themselves the independent United States of America. This too did not affect the rates.

Then there was the war with France from 1790s to 1815, that involved sending fleets as far as the Caribbean and Egypt. Soldiers found themselves in America, Argentina, and Spain. France threatened with an invasion, and they even had a trade war that leads to a slump in the London stock market. Amazingly, not even this changed the rates.

The sack of Baltimore

There is a small village of Baltimore in the south of Ireland. It was not important before it was attacked during the summer of 1631. These were unfamiliar enemies that sacked the village. The perpetrators were as exotic as they could have been for the 17th century, Barbary pirates from North Africa led by a Dutch captain who converted to a Muslim and a pirate, Jan Janszoon van Haarlem, also known as Murad Reis the Younger.

His attack was both sudden and quick. The predominantly English settlers and native Irish were captured and forced into slavery. Some became galley slaves and led a brutal and short life, while many younger women spent long years in the Sultan’s harem, or in his palace as laborers. Only three saw Ireland again in their lives.

What do you think about these strange moments in history? Do you know any of these stories? Which is the most surprising and weird for you?

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